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Overview - Surah 48: al-Fath (The Victory ) Views: 01361
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 Total Ayat 29
 Total Words 560
  Root Words 182
Unique Root Words 0
Naming Convention of the Surah [ edit ] Last edited: 03/03/2016

This Surah takes its name from the first Ayat, إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُّبِينًا "Indeed, We have given you, [O Muhammad], a clear conquest." (48:1).

There are 29 Ayat in this Surah. 

Top 10 Most Frequent Root Words used in this Surah
Central Theme [ edit ] Last edited: 30/11/2017

Theme 1: The Victories of God awarded to the Prophet and his Nation.

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Connection of the name of the Surah and its Ayaat [ edit ] Last edited: 30/11/2017

There are many fatuhat [victories and openings] given by Allah to the Prophet and his Companions. There was the initial victor/opening to have peace which was set to last for 10 years. The second opening was the ability for them to perform Umrah [minor pilgrimage] in the midst of the enemy in enemy territory. We also know some years following the revelation of this Surah that Makkah was conquered and this was the culminated victory, إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّـهِ وَالْفَتْحُ "When the victory of Allah has come and the conquest," (110:1). Finally, the ultimate victory will be entering of Jannah for the Believers (47:5).

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Connection between the beginning and the ending of the Surah [ edit ] Last edited: 04/03/2016
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Connection of the Surah to the Surah before/after it [ edit ] Last edited: 03/03/2016
  • The Prophet Muhammad.The last Ayat of this Surah mentions the Prophet Muhammad and those with him (48:29) and the following Surah begins with how those around the Messenger should behave (49:1-5).
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The Virtues of the Surah [ edit ] Last edited: 03/03/2016
  • The Prophet loved this Surah. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)  said, 'Tonight a Surah has been revealed to me, and it is dearer to me than that on which the sun rises (i.e. the world)' Then he recited: "Verily, We have given you a manifest victory." (48:1)  Bukhari no. 4833
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Special Features of the Surah [ edit ] Last edited: 04/03/2016
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Important key and unique words of the Surah [ edit ] Last edited: 14/12/2017

(48:29) is the longest Ayat of this Surah with 54 words,

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّـهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّـهِ وَرِضْوَانًا ۖ سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ ۚ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ ۗ وَعَدَ اللَّـهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا  "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers - so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward." (48:29)

Total Word Count per Ayat (shows how many words per Ayat)
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Period of Revelation [ edit ] Last edited: 04/03/2016

Hadith concur that it was sent down in Dhul Qa’dah, 6 A.H., at a time when the Prophet was on his return journey to Madinah after concluding the Truce of Hudaibiyah with the disbelievers of Makkah.

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Background Reasons for Revelation [ edit ] Last edited: 04/03/2016

The events in connection with which this Surah was sent down began life like this: One day the Prophet saw in a dream that he had gone to Makkah with his Companions and had performed the Umrah (lesser pilgrimage) there. Obviously, the Prophet’s dream could not be a mere dream and fiction for it is a kind of Divine inspiration as God Himself has confirmed in verse 27 below and said that He Himself had shown that dream to His Messenger. Therefore, it was not merely a dream but a Divine inspiration which the Prophet had to obey and follow.

Apparently, there was no possible way of acting on this inspiration. The disbelieving Quraysh had barred the Muslims from proceeding to the Ka’bah for the past six years and no Muslim had been allowed during that period to approach the Ka’bah for the purpose of performing Hajj and Umrah. Therefore, it could not be expected that they would allow the Prophet to enter Makkah along with a party of his Companions. If they had proceeded to Makkah in the pilgrim garments with the intention of performing Umrah, along with their arms, this would have provoked the enemy to war, and if they had proceeded unarmed, this would have meant endangering his own as well as his Companions’ lives. Under conditions such as these nobody could see and suggest how the Divine inspiration could be acted upon.

But the Prophet’s position was different. It demanded that he should carry out whatever Command his Lord gave fearlessly and without any apprehension and doubt. Therefore, the Prophet informed his Companions of his dream and began to make preparations for the journey. Among the tribes living in the suburbs also he had the public announcement made that he was proceeding for Umrah and the people could join him. Those who could only see the apparent conditions thought that he and his Companions were going into the very jaws of death and none of them therefore was inclined to accompany him in the expedition. But those who had true faith in God and His Messenger were least bothered about the consequences. For them this information was enough that it was a Divine inspiration and God’s Prophet had made up his mind to carry it into effect. After this nothing could hinder them from accompanying the Messenger of God. Thus, 1,400 of the Companions became ready to follow him on this highly dangerous journey.

This blessed caravan set off from Madinah in the beginning of Dhul Qa’dah, 6 A.H. At Dhul Hulaifah they entered the pilgrims robe with the intention of Umrah, took 70 camels with collars round their necks indicating that they were sacrificial animals; kept only a sword each in sheaths, which the pilgrims to the Ka’bah were allowed to carry according to the recognised custom of Arabia, but no other weapon. Thus, the caravan set out for the Ka’bah, the House of God, at Makkah, chanting the prescribed slogan of ‘Labbaik, Allahuma labbaik.’ (I respond to you O God I respond to you)

The nature of the relations between Makkah and Madinah in those days was known too well to every Arab. Just the previous year, in Shawwal 5 A.H., the Quraysh mustering the united strength of the Arab tribes had invaded Madinah and the well known Battle of the Trench had taken place. Therefore, when the Prophet along with such a large caravan set off for the home of his blood-thirsty enemy, the whole of Arabia looked up with amazement, and the people also noticed that the caravan was not going with the intention to fight but was proceeding to the House of God in a forbidden month in the pilgrims clothing carrying sacrificial animals and was absolutely unarmed.

The Quraysh were confounded at this bold step taken by the Prophet. Dhul Qa’dah was one of those forbidden months which had been held as sacred for pilgrimage in Arabia for centuries. Nobody had a right to interfere with a caravan which might be coming for Hajj or Umrah in the pilgrims clothing in this month; so much so that even an enemy tribe could not hinder it from passing through its territory according to the recognised law of the land. The Quraysh therefore were caught in a dilemma, for if they attacked this caravan from Madinah and stopped it from entering Makkah, this would arouse a clamour of protest in the whole country, and all the Arab tribes would have the misgiving that the Quraysh had monopolized the Ka’bah as exclusively their own, and every tribe would be involved in the mistrust that now it depended on the will of the Quraysh to allow or not to allow anyone to perform Hajj or Umrah in the future and that they would stop any tribe with which they were angry from visiting the Ka’bah just as they had stopped the Madinese pilgrims. This they thought would be a grave mistake, which would cause the entire Arabia to revolt against them. But, on the other hand, if they allowed Muhammad and his large caravan to enter their city safely, they would lose their image of power in Arabia and the people would say that they were afraid of Muhammad. At last, after a great deal of confusion, perplexity and hesitation they were overcome by their false sense of honour and for the sake of their prestige they took the decision that they would at no cost allow the caravan to enter the city of Makkah.

The Prophet had despatched a man of the Bani Ka’b as a secret agent so that he may keep him fully informed of the intentions and movements of the Quraysh. When the Prophet reached Usfan, he brought the news that the Quraysh had reached Dhi Tuwa with full preparations and they had sent Khalid bin Walid with two hundred cavalry men in advance towards Kura’al-Ghamim to intercept him. The Quraysh wanted somehow to provoke the Prophet’s Companions into fighting so that they may tell the Arabs that those people had actually come to fight and had put on the pilgrims garments for Umrah only to deceive others.

Immediately on receipt of this information the Prophet changed his route and following a very rugged, rocky track reached Hudaibiyah, which was situated right on the boundary of the sacred Makkan territory. Here, he was visited by Budail bin Warqa the chief of the Bani Khuza’ah, along with some men of his tribe. They asked what he had come for. The Prophet replied that he and his Companions had come only for pilgrimage to the House of God and for going round it in worship and not for war. The men of Khuza’ah went and told this to the Quraysh chiefs and counseled them not to interfere with the pilgrims. But the Quraysh were obstinate. They sent Hulays bin Alqamah, the chief of the Ahabish, to the Prophet to persuade him to go back. Their object was that when Muhammad would not listen to Hulays, he would come back disappointed and then the entire power of the Ahabish would be on their side. But when Hulays went and saw that the whole caravan had put on the pilgrims g more

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Relevant Hadith [ edit ] Last edited: 03/03/2016
  • The Prophet reciting Qur'an on the Day of Victory [Conquest of Makkah]
    حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْوَلِيدِ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ قُرَّةَ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ مُغَفَّلٍ، يَقُولُ رَأَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَوْمَ فَتْحِ مَكَّةَ عَلَى نَاقَتِهِ، وَهْوَ يَقْرَأُ سُورَةَ الْفَتْحِ يُرَجِّعُ، وَقَالَ لَوْلاَ أَنْ يَجْتَمِعَ النَّاسُ حَوْلِي لَرَجَّعْتُ كَمَا رَجَّعَ‏
    Abdullah bin Mughaffal reports, "I saw Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) on the day of the Conquest of Makkah over his she-camel, reciting Surat-al-Fath in a vibrant quivering tone. (The sub-narrator, Mu'awiya bin Qurra added, "Were I not afraid that the people may gather around me, I would recite in vibrant quivering tone as he (i.e. `Abdullah bin Mughaffal) did, imitating Allah's Messenger (ﷺ).") Bukhari no.4281
  • حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ يَسِيرُ فِي بَعْضِ أَسْفَارِهِ وَعُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ يَسِيرُ مَعَهُ لَيْلاً، فَسَأَلَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ عَنْ شَىْءٍ، فَلَمْ يُجِبْهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ سَأَلَهُ فَلَمْ يُجِبْهُ، ثُمَّ سَأَلَهُ فُلَمْ يُجِبْهُ، فَقَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ ثَكِلَتْ أُمُّ عُمَرَ، نَزَرْتَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ، كُلَّ ذَلِكَ لاَ يُجِيبُكَ‏.‏ قَالَ عُمَرُ فَحَرَّكْتُ بَعِيرِي، ثُمَّ تَقَدَّمْتُ أَمَامَ النَّاسِ، وَخَشِيتُ أَنْ يُنْزَلَ فِيَّ الْقُرْآنُ، فَمَا نَشِبْتُ أَنْ سَمِعْتُ صَارِخًا يَصْرُخُ بِي فَقُلْتُ لَقَدْ خَشِيتُ أَنْ يَكُونَ نَزَلَ فِيَّ قُرْآنٌ‏.‏ فَجِئْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَسَلَّمْتُ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ لَقَدْ أُنْزِلَتْ عَلَىَّ اللَّيْلَةَ سُورَةٌ لَهِيَ أَحَبُّ إِلَىَّ مِمَّا طَلَعَتْ عَلَيْهِ الشَّمْسُ ‏"‏‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَرَأَ ‏"‏‏{‏إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُبِينًا‏}

    Narrated Aslam, "While Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) was proceeding at night during one of his journeys and `Umar bin Al-Khattab was traveling beside him, `Umar asked him about something but Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) did not reply. He asked again, but he did not reply, and then he asked (for the third time) but he did not reply. On that, `Umar bin Al-Khattab said to himself, "Thakilat Ummu `Umar (May `Umar's mother lose her son)! I asked Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) three times but he did not reply." `Umar then said, "I made my camel run faster and went ahead of the people, and I was afraid that some Qur'anic Verses might be revealed about me. But before getting involved in any other matter. I heard somebody calling me. I said to myself, 'I fear that some Qur'anic Verses have been revealed about me,' and so I went to Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) and greeted him. He (Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) ) said, 'Tonight a Sura has been revealed to me, and it is dearer to me than that on which the sun rises (i.e. the world)' Then he recited: "Verily, We have given you a manifest victory." (48:1)" Bukhari no.  4833

  • وَحَدَّثَنَا نَصْرُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الْجَهْضَمِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدُ بْنُ الْحَارِثِ، حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي، عَرُوبَةَ عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، أَنَّ أَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ، حَدَّثَهُمْ قَالَ لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ ‏{‏ إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُبِينًا * لِيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ‏}‏ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ ‏{‏ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا‏}‏ مَرْجِعَهُ مِنَ الْحُدَيْبِيَةِ وَهُمْ يُخَالِطُهُمُ الْحُزْنُ وَالْكَآبَةُ وَقَدْ نَحَرَ الْهَدْىَ بِالْحُدَيْبِيَةِ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ لَقَدْ أُنْزِلَتْ عَلَىَّ آيَةٌ هِيَ أَحَبُّ إِلَىَّ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا جَمِيعًا 
    It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik who said, "When they (Companions of the Holy Prophet) were overwhelmed with grief and distress on his return from Hudaibiya where he had slaughtered his sacrificial beasts (not being allowed to proceed to Mecca), the Qur'anic verse: Inna fatahna... laka fathan mobinan to fauzan 'aziman, was revealed to him. (At this) he said: On me has descended a verse that is dearer to me than the whole world." Sahih Muslim no. 4409

  • حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ آدَمَ، حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، حَدَّثَنَا حَبِيبُ بْنُ أَبِي ثَابِتٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو وَائِلٍ، قَالَ كُنَّا بِصِفِّينَ فَقَامَ سَهْلُ بْنُ حُنَيْفٍ فَقَالَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّهِمُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ فَإِنَّا كُنَّا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَوْمَ الْحُدَيْبِيَةِ، وَلَوْ نَرَى قِتَالاً لَقَاتَلْنَا، فَجَاءَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ فَقَالَ يَا more

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Lessons/Guidance/Major-Issues/Reflections [ edit ] Last edited: 14/12/2017
  • The dream of the Prophet - About a year after the defeat and retreat of the Quraysh at the Battle of Ahzab - the Messenger of Allah was given revelation through a dream that he is entering the Masjid al-Haram in Makkah. 
  • Allah granted the Muslims a manifest victory through the treaty of Hudeybiyah.
  • Swearing allegiance to the Prophet was considered swearing allegiance to Allah and Allah was well pleased for their actions.
  • Those who do not participate in a war between Islam and Kufr are condemned by Allah.
  • Only the blind, lame and sick are exempt from war between Islam and Kufr.
  • A vision to conquer Makkah was shown to the Prophet.
  • Characteristics of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his followers.
  • 'Bait ar-Ridwan' [pledge of Ridwan] took place - this was the pledge to fight till death on hearing the news of the possible murder of Uthman.
  • Allah Almighty was pleased with the Sahabah who pledged allegiance. لَّقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّـهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا "Certainly was Allah pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, [O Muhammad], under the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquillity upon them and rewarded them with an imminent conquest"  (48:18).
  • Lessons from Hadith in Bukhari. Abdullah bin Mughaffal"I saw Allah's Messenger on the day of the Conquest of Makkah over his she-camel, reciting Surat-al-Fath in a vibrant quivering tone. (The sub-narrator, Mu'awiya bin Qurra added, "Were I not afraid that the people may gather around me, I would recite in vibrant quivering tone as he (i.e. `Abdullah bin Mughaffal) did, imitating Allah's Messenger.") Bukhari no.4281 1) At moments of happiness and gratitude we should recite Qur'an. Choose a Surah that reflects the situation. Surah al-Fath was revealed years before the conquest of Makkah - it was revealed after the treaty of Hudaiybiyah 2) The Prophet reciting the Qur'an with khushu' [humility]. 3) Compare the conduct of the Prophet as he enters as a Victor to other rulers in history who entered in much pomp and show etc
  • All the Companions that gave the pledge of allegiance to the Prophet under the tree are from the people of Jannah.
  • Virtue of the Sahabah [companions] mentioned in the Torah and Injeel.
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Wiki Forum Last edited: 04/03/2016
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Miscellaneous Issues [ edit ] Last edited: 04/03/2016
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External Links [ edit ] Last edited: 03/03/2016
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