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Overview - Surah 4: an-Nisa' (Women ) Views: 03523
Overview - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 20 - 21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25 - 26 - 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 32 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45 - 46 - 47 - 48 - 49 - 50 - 51 - 52 - 53 - 54 - 55 - 56 - 57 - 58 - 59 - 60 - 61 - 62 - 63 - 64 - 65 - 66 - 67 - 68 - 69 - 70 - 71 - 72 - 73 - 74 - 75 - 76 - 77 - 78 - 79 - 80 - 81 - 82 - 83 - 84 - 85 - 86 - 87 - 88 - 89 - 90 - 91 - 92 - 93 - 94 - 95 - 96 - 97 - 98 - 99 - 100 - 101 - 102 - 103 - 104 - 105 - 106 - 107 - 108 - 109 - 110 - 111 - 112 - 113 - 114 - 115 - 116 - 117 - 118 - 119 - 120 - 121 - 122 - 123 - 124 - 125 - 126 - 127 - 128 - 129 - 130 - 131 - 132 - 133 - 134 - 135 - 136 - 137 - 138 - 139 - 140 - 141 - 142 - 143 - 144 - 145 - 146 - 147 - 148 - 149 - 150 - 151 - 152 - 153 - 154 - 155 - 156 - 157 - 158 - 159 - 160 - 161 - 162 - 163 - 164 - 165 - 166 - 167 - 168 - 169 - 170 - 171 - 172 - 173 - 174 - 175 - 176 - DISPLAY ALL
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 Total Ayat 176
 
 Total Words 3747
 
  Root Words 474
 
Unique Root Words 13
Naming Convention of the Surah [ edit ] Last edited: 02/04/2017

It is referred to as ‘an-Nisa’ [The Women] – many of the rulings regarding women and family life are in this Surah. The word 'an-Nisa' occurs with more frequency in this Surah then in any other Surah - being mentioned 18 times [Interestingly, the word Man/Men - occur more times in this Surah than any other Surah -  total of 8 times]

There are 176 Ayaat in this Surah.

 
 
Top 10 Most Frequent Root Words used in this Surah
Central Theme [ edit ] Last edited: 21/04/2016

Consolidation of the Muslim Ummah. The main object of this Surah is to teach the Muslims the ways that unite a people and make them firm and strong. Introductions for the stability of family, which is the nucleus of community have been given. Then they have been urged to prepare themselves for defence. Side by side with these, they have been taught the importance of the propagation of Islam. Above all, the importance of the highest moral character in the scheme of consolidation of the Community has been impressed.

The main theme of this Surah is the building of a strong Islamic community. Guidelines are provided to the Muslims for uniting their ranks to be firm and strong. Instructions are given to stabilize the family structure, which is the nucleus of a strong community. Muslims are urged to prepare themselves for defense and to be the torchbearers of Islam. The importance of having a high moral character in building a strong community is emphasized.

Guidelines for the smooth running of family life are provided and methods to settle family disputes are taught. Rules for marriage are prescribed and rights of wife and husband are assigned fairly and equitably. The status of women in the society is determined and the declaration about the rights of orphans is made. Laws and regulations are laid down for the distribution of inheritance. Instructions are given to reform the economic system. The foundation of criminal laws is laid down. Drinking is prohibited. Instructions are given for cleanliness and purification. The Muslims are taught what kind of relations they should have with their Rabb and with their fellow human beings. Instructions are given for the maintenance of discipline in the Muslim community.

The moral and religious condition of the People of the Book is reviewed to teach lessons to the Muslims, and a warning is given to refrain from following in their footsteps. The distinctive features of hypocrisy and true faith are clearly marked for easy identification between the two. The setback in the Battle of Uhud had enabled the mushrik Arab clans, the neighboring Jews, and the hypocrites in Al-Madinah to threaten the Muslims from all sides. At this critical stage, Allah's grace filled the Muslims with courage and gave them the necessary instructions during that period. In order to counteract the fearful rumors that were being spread by the hypocrites, they were asked to make a thorough inquiry about their accuracy and then inform the appropriate leadership. Muslims were experiencing difficulties in offering their Salah during the expeditions when water was not available to perform ablution. In such circumstances Allah granted a permission to make Tayammum (purification with clean earth), and to shorten the Salah or to offer the "Salat-ul-Khauf," when they were faced with danger. Instructions were also given to those Muslims who were living in the enemy camps that they should migrate to Al-Madinah, the Islamic State.

Clear instructions are also given regarding the hypocrites and nonbelligerent clans. On one hand, the superiority of Islamic morality and culture is established over that of the Jews, Christians and mushrikin; on the other hand, their incorrect religious concepts, immorality, and evil actions are criticized to prepare the ground for inviting them to the Right Way. 

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Connection of the name of the Surah and its Ayaat [ edit ] Last edited: 04/03/2016
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Connection between the beginning and the ending of the Surah [ edit ] Last edited: 04/03/2016
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Connection of the Surah to the Surah before/after it [ edit ] Last edited: 04/03/2016
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The Virtues of the Surah [ edit ] Last edited: 04/03/2016
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Special Features of the Surah [ edit ] Last edited: 03/03/2016
  • Surah an-Nisa is named after 'Women', There is not a Surah named after Men.
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Important key and unique words of the Surah [ edit ] Last edited: 02/04/2017
  • Words stemming from R-Q-B appear more times in this Surah then any other Surah of the Qur'an. It appears 4 times. 
 
Total Word Count per Ayat (shows how many words per Ayat)
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Period of Revelation [ edit ] Last edited: 04/03/2016

This Surah comprises several discourses which were revealed on different occasions during the period ranging probably between the end of year 3 A.H. and the end of 4 A.H. or the beginning of 5 A.H. Although it is difficult to determine the exact dates of their revelations it is possible to assign to them a fairly correct period with the help of the Commandments and the events mentioned therein. A few instances are given below by way of illustration:

1. We know that the inheritance law for those martyred and protection for the rights of the orphans was sent down after the Battle of Uhud (in which 70 Muslims were martyred). From this we conclude that v. 1 -28 were revealed on that occasion.

2. We learn from the traditions that the ruling regarding the prayer (Salah) during war time was given on the occasion of the Zat-ur-Riqa’aan expedition. This took place in 4 A.H. From this we conclude that the discourse containing v. 102 was revealed on that occasion.

3. The last warning to the Jews was given before the Banu-Nadheer were exiled from Madinah in Rabi’-ulAwwal 4 A.H. It may therefore be assumed that the discourse containing v. 47 was revealed before that date.

4. The permission about performing ablution with dust in the event of no water (tayammum) verse 43, was given during the Bani-al-Mustaliq expedition which took place in 5 A.H. [REF: Mawdudi]

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Background Reasons for Revelation [ edit ] Last edited: 04/03/2016

Let us now consider the social and historical considerations of the period in order to understand the Surah. All the discourses in this Surah deal with three main problems which confronted the Prophet at the time. First of all he was engaged in bringing about an all round development of the islamic Community that had been formed at the time of his migration to Madinah. For this purpose he was introducing new moral cultural social economic and political ways in place of the old ones of the pre-islamic period. The second thing that occupied his attention and efforts was the bitter struggle that was going on with the polytheist Arabs, the Jewish clans and the hypocrites who were opposing tooth and nail his mission of reform. Above all, he had to propagate Islam in the face of the bitter opposition of these powers of evil with a view to capturing more and more minds and hearts.

Accordingly detailed instructions have been given for the consolidation and strengthening of the islamic Community in continuation of those given in Surah 2: Al-Baqarah (The Cow). Principles for the smooth running of family life have been laid down and ways of settling family disputes have been taught. Rules have been prescribed for marriage and rights of wife and husband have been apportioned fairly and equitably. The status of women in the society has been determined and the declaration of the rights of orphans has been made. Laws and regulations have been laid down for the division of inheritance and instructions have been given to reform economic affairs. The foundation of the penal code has been laid down, drinking has been prohibited and instructions have been given for cleanliness and purity. The Muslims have been taught the kind of relations good men should have with their God and fellow men. Instructions have been given for the maintenance of discipline in the Muslim Community.

The moral and religious condition of The People of the Book (Jews and Christians) has been reviewed to teach lessons to the Muslims and to forewarn them to refrain from following in their footsteps. The conduct of the hypocrites has been criticized and the distinctive features of hypocrisy and true faith have been clearly marked off to enable the Muslims to distinguish between the two. In order to cope with the aftermath of the Battle of Uhud, Inspiring discourses were sent down to urge the Muslims to face the enemy bravely, for defeat in the Battle had so emboldened the polytheist Arab clans and the neighbouring Jews and the hypocrites at home, that they were threatening the Muslims on all sides. At this critical juncture God filled the Muslims with courage and gave them such instructions as were needed during that period of war clouds. In order to counteract the fearful rumours that were being spread by the hypocrites and the Muslims of weak faith they were asked to make a thorough enquiry into them and to inform the responsible people about them. Then they were experiencing some difficulties in offering their prayer during the expeditions to some places where no water was available for performing their ablutions etc. In such cases they were allowed to cleanse themselves with pure earth and to shorten the prayer or to offer the “Prayer of Fear” when they were faced with danger. Instructions were also given for the solution of the puzzling problem of those Muslims who were scattered among the unbelieving Arab clans and were often involved in war. They were asked to migrate to Madinah the abode of Islam.

This Surah also deals with the case of Banu nadir who were showing a hostile and menacing attitude in spite of the peace treaties they had made with the Muslims. They were openly siding with the enemies of Islam and hatching plots against the Prophet and the Muslim Community even at Madinah itself. They were taken to task for their inimical behaviour and given a final warning to change their attitude and were at last exiled from Madinah on account of their misconduct.

The problem of the hypocrites, who had become very troublesome at that time, was involving the Believers in difficulties. Therefore, they were divided into different categories to enable the Muslims to deal with them appropriately. Clear instructions were also given regarding the attitude they should adopt towards the non-belligerent clans. The most important thing needed at that time was to prepare the Muslims for the bitter struggle with the opponents of Islam. For this purpose greatest importance was attached to their character building, for it was obvious that the small Muslim Community could only come out successful, nay, survive, if the Muslims possessed high moral character. They were, therefore, enjoined to adopt the highest moral qualities and were severely criticized whenever any moral weakness was detected in them.

Though this Surah mainly deals with the moral and social reforms, yet due attention has been paid to propagation of Islam. On the one hand, the superiority of the islamic morality and culture has been established over that of the Jews, Christians and polytheists; on the other hand, their wrong religious conceptions, their wrong morality and their evil acts have been criticized to prepare the ground for inviting them to the way of the Truth. 

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Relevant Hadith [ edit ] Last edited: 03/03/2016
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Lessons/Guidance/Major-Issues/Reflections [ edit ] Last edited: 08/03/2016
  • Restriction on number of wives.
  • Marriage and the rights of women.
  • Laws of inheritance, women are awarded the rights to inherit.
  • Acceptable and unacceptable repentance.
  • Mahram relations - relatives that are prohibited for marriage.
  • Commandment about 'arbitration' in family disputes.
  • Second commandment relating to the prohibition of drinking, ( first commandment was in Surah Al-Baqarah 2:219).
  • The one who disputes the decision of the Prophet is not a believer.
  • Divine Law that obedience of the Rasool is in fact the obedience of Allah.
  • Allah commands to respond greetings with better greetings.
  • Laws about manslaughter, murder and bloodwit.
  • Salat-ul-Qasr: permission of short prayer in travelling.
  • Salat-ul-Khauf: performing prayer in a state of emergency (war).
  • Salat: ( prayers) are obligatory on prescribed timings.
  • Prohibition of 'secret counsels' and its exceptions.
  • Decree of Allah that He will never forgive a mushrik.
  • Allah's commandment to be firm for justice and bear true witness.
  • Allah's commandment to boycott un-Islamic meetings.
  • The fact that hypocrites will be in the lowest depth of hellfire.
  • Jesus was neither killed nor crucified.
  • Jesus was a Prophet of Allah (Almighty God) and His worshipper.
  • Stop saying "Trinity" - Allah is the One and Only God.
  • The Qur'an carries the same Message that was sent to Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses) and Isa (Jesus).
  • Allah's commandments relating to family life and community life.
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Wiki Forum Last edited: 04/03/2016
Comments in this section are statements made by general users – these are not necessarily explanations of the Ayah – rather a place to share personal thoughts and stories… Login to enter your comments
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Miscellaneous Issues Last edited: 04/03/2016
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External Links [ edit ] Last edited: 01/02/2017
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